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Home page:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2021). Quick statistics about hearing. National 

Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.


Redefining Experts:

Antia, S.D., Lederberg, A. R., Easterbrooks, S., Schick, B., Branum-Martin, L., Connor, C. M., 

Webb, M. Y. (2020). Language and reading progress of young deaf and hard-of-hearing children. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 25(3), 334-350.

Berke, J. (2020, May 2). How an audist attitudes negatively affects deaf people. Very Well 

Health. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from

De Clerck, G. A. M. (2010). Deaf epistemologies as a critique and alternative to the practice of 

science: An anthropological perspective. American Annals of the Deaf, 154(5), 435–446.

Hall, M.L., Eigsti, I., Bortfeld, H., Lillo-Martin, D. (2017). Auditory deprivation does not impair 

executive function, but language deprivation might: Evidence from a parent-report measure in deaf native signing children. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 22(1), 9–21.

Hall, W. C., Levin, L. L., & Anderson, M. L. (2017b). Language deprivation syndrome: A 

possible neurodevelopmental disorder with sociocultural origins. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(6), 761-776.

Humphries, T., Kushalnagar, P., Mathur, G., Napoli, D. J., Padden, C., Rathmann, C., & Smith, S. (2016). Avoiding linguistic neglect of deaf children. Social Service Review, 90(4), 589-619.

Fitzpatrick, E.M., Stevens, A., Garritty, C., & Moher, D. (2013) The effects of sign language 

on spoken language acquisition in children with hearing loss: A systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews, 2,108.

Kasulis, K. (2017). The strange reason deaf children aren't taught sign language. Mic.

Kushalnagar, P., Ryan, C., Paludneviciene, R., Spellun, A., & Gulati, S. (2020). Adverse childhood communication experiences associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases in adults who are deaf. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 59(4), 548-554. 

Tsou, Y., Li, B., Eichengreen, A., Frijns, J.H.M., Rieffe, C. (2021). Emotions in deaf and hard-

of-hearing and typically hearing children. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 26(4), 469–482.

Warner-Czyz, A. D., Loy, B. A., Evans, C., Wetsel, A., & Tobey, E. A. (2015). Self-

esteem in children and adolescents with hearing loss. Trends in Hearing, 19.

Werfel, K.L., Reynolds, G., Fitton, F. (2022). Oral language acquisition in preschool children 

who are deaf and hard-of-hearing. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 27(2), 166–178.

Wilkinson, E., Morford, J.P. (2020). How bilingualism contributes to healthy development 

in deaf children: A public health perspective. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 24, 1330–1338.



Huang, F. (2017). The importance of early intervention. Hearing Health Foundation: Awareness. 

Meyer, A. C., Marsolek, M., Brown, N., & Coverstone, K. (2020). Delayed identification of infants who are deaf or hard of hearing-minnesota, 2012–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Moeller M. P. (2000). Early intervention and language development in children who are deaf and 

hard of hearing. Pediatrics, 106(3), E43.

Quittner, A. L., Barker, D. H., Cruz, I., Snell, C., Grimley, M. E., Botteri, M., & the CDaCI 

Investigative Team (2010). Parenting stress among parents of deaf and hearing children: Associations with language delays and behavior problems. Parenting, Science and Practice, 10(2), 136–155.


Language Choices:

Cheng, Q., Roth, A., Halgren, E., & Mayberry, R. I. (2019). Effects of early language 

deprivation on brain connectivity: Language pathways in deaf native and late first-language learners of American sign language. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13. 

Garberoglio, C. L., Cawthon, S., & Sales, A. (2017). Deaf People and Educational Attainment in 

the United States: 2017. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Deaf Center on Postsecondary Outcomes.

Kushalnagar, P., Reesman, J., Holcomb, T., & Ryan, C. (2019). Prevalence of anxiety or 

depression diagnosis in deaf adults. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 24(4), 


Theunissen, S. C., Rieffe, C., Netten, A. P., Briaire, J. J., Soede, W., Kouwenberg, M., & Frijns, 

J. H. (2014). Self-esteem in hearing-impaired children: the influence of communication, education, and audiological characteristics. PloS one, 9(4), e94521.


Language Deprivation:

Alumni, U. P. (2020, January 26). Communication gap: Where accommodations for deaf children lack. Urban Plains.

Dougherty, E. (2017). Studying Language Acquisition in Deaf Children. Getting the Word In.

Boston University.

Humphries, T., Kushalnagar, P., Mathur, G., Napoli, D. J., Padden, C., Rathmann, C., & Smith, 

S. (2016). Language choices for deaf infants: Advice for parents regarding sign languages. Clinical Pediatrics, 55(6), 513–517. 0009922815616891

Napoli D.J., Mellon N.K., Niparko J.K., Rathmann C., Mathur G., Humphries T., Handley T., 

Scambler S., & Lantos J.D. (2015) Should all deaf children learn sign language? Pediatrics,136(1),170-176.

Nyle DiMarco Foundation, (2016, December 20). What is language deprivation? [Video]. 



Technology Choices:

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.). State insurance mandates for hearing aids. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 

Center for Devices and Radiological Health. (2017). Cochlear Implant Frequently asked questions. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Mayo Clinic. (2020). Cochlear implants. Mayo Clinic. 

Mroz, M. (2021, June 4). Hearing aid prices - how much do hearing aids cost? Healthy Hearing. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). Hearing aids. National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. 


ASL Isn’t Easy:

Hall, M. L., Hall, W. C., & Caselli, N. K. (2019). Deaf children need language, not (just) speech. First Language, 39(4), 367-395. 10.1177/014272371983410

Steber, S., Rossi, S. (2021). The challenge of learning a new language in adulthood: Evidence 

from a multi-methodological neuroscientific approach. PLoS ONE 16(2): e0246421. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246421 


Deaf History:

Lane, H. (1989). When the mind hears: A history of the deaf. Vintage Books. 

Lane, H., Hoffmeister, R., & Bahan, B. (1996). A journey into the deaf-world. DawnSignPress. 


The Hearing World:

Callis, L. (2017). 5 great reasons to establish a bilingual ASL household. HuffPost. 

Caselli, N., Pyers, J., Lieberman, A.M. (2021). Deaf children of hearing parents have age-level

vocabulary growth when exposed to American Sign Language by 6 months of age. The Journal of Pediatrics, 232, 229-236. article/pii/S0022347621000366

Hintermair, M. (2018). Self-esteem and satisfaction with life of deaf and hard-of-hearing 

people-A resource-oriented approach to identity work. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13(2), 278–300.

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